Libraries pay a fee for unlimited open access publications in hybrid magazines and reading the entire content of the closed access for the entire publisher`s journal portfolio. The model can also be set up for a single book sheet or a subset of the registration portfolio. At the starting point, the tax is the historical subscription fee for each library. The agreement may also include LDCs for publication in pure OA newspapers above or a single additional fee for permanent access rights for archive content, but none of these components is the core of the contract or affects the model. As part of the OA transition, the share of the fee related to access to closed content decreases and the share of the royalty added to the publication of OA increases with the ratio of access to open access to all newspaper content (portfolio). Watch the video to find out how streaming works smoothly.>> smoothing of revenues is not based on “creative” accounting or false statements that would constitute fraud, but on the flexibility provided for the interpretation of GAAP. Because of the fair and ethical management of expectations, companies that apply a hint of revenue smoothing generally do not have the red flag. Income smoothing uses accounting techniques to offset fluctuations in net income from one period to the next. Companies engage in this practice because investors are generally willing to pay a premium for stocks with stable and predictable income streams, unlike stocks whose revenues are subject to more volatile schemes that may be considered riskier. Income smoothing is not illegal if the process follows generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Talented accountants are able to adjust financial books in a way that goes overboard to ensure the legality of revenue smoothing. However, often income smoothing is done with fraudulent methods.
The EU and the UK have reached an agreement on the withdrawal agreement with a revised protocol on Ireland and Northern Ireland (abolition of the “backstop”) and a revised political declaration. On the same day, the European Council (Article 50) approved these texts. The real advantage of the smooth transition model via R-P or P-R is that library acquisition budgets have the ability to phase in from subscription spending to CPPs.